What is Better: Different Fish Oil’s Versus Krill

Fish Oil Vs Krill: A lengthy explanation that is worth getting to the bottom of!

Now that the Marine Omega 3 market has reached 30 billion dollars a year and is forecast to double by 2030 it is understandable that attempts, primarily by marketers, are being made to distinguish different types of product, with the goal of convincing you one way or the other: fish oil vs krill oil.

In marketing parlance this is called USP or Unique Selling Proposition.

The truth is the really unique work on fish oil is actually being done by drug companies. This also primarily a market driven thing.  What most people don’t realize is the huge connection between drugs and natural ingredients.  While the Pharmaceutical Industry makes extensive use of computer modeling and design, oft times the molecules exist in nature.

For example, the statin class has now made about 500 billion for Big Pharma. It originated as Chinese Red Yeast Rice.  Most anti-biotics have their roots in molds, fungi or bacteria. Eventually computer modeling and semi or wholly synthetic molecules were created as they often are from the original natural compounds.  If you look at the history of the ACE inhibitor class you will find claims they were created solely by computer modeling. Soon after they were discovered in nature.

The problem for Big Pharma is they must create new molecules or settle for what is known as a “use patent”.  A new molecule or an extracted molecule (like mevacor from red yeast rice) can be fully patented.  A natural molecule like fish oil must settle for a use patent which is harder to enforce and results in much less profit.

So, the pharmaceutical industry has progressed slowly and not without trouble from the FDA when it comes to developing “new” molecules for fish oil.

All in all, the main reason for doing this is to make money, but the essential fatty acids in fish oil do a fantastic job of improving health.

Now in the supplement industry there is still a huge desire to create a USP.

Sadly, this has done nothing but confuse the public and create a not so classy attempt by marketers to sell hype not substance.

Here is the truth: Anything that contains the essential fatty acids DHA and EPA will work to improve human health especially in a population that is deficient. Fish Oil vs Krill Oil? It might not matter so much until you dive into the details.

The alphabet agencies decided a long time ago that fish oil was not a vitamin.  But this is a huge mistake and frankly I think you should approach this as a nutritional deficiency.  Fixing this deficiency will result in many benefits as you might expect.  This is, by the way, why fish oil is so good for so many different things.  Its not just marketing hype and if you understand it’s a deficiency then it all makes sense.

You should also know that no public health agency or governmental alphabet agency agrees with this statement.  The current recommendation is NOT to exceed 3 grams of Omega 3 per day no matter how you get it.

This is because “experts” say going above this level will not help you and may hurt you.  We’ll get to that later but be aware this is not a government or medically sanctioned approach.

So, if everything that contains EPA and DHA works, why bother looking and why bother thinking about it at all? Does it matter if it’s fish oil vs krill oil?

Again, it’s a bit more complex than it sounds.

Long ago fish oil was available only in its “natural triglyceride” form.  Basically, you catch the fish, wack them over the head and process (press) the unused parts of the fish to extract the oil.  If you want to get a bit fancier you can run a type of cleaning process using clay.

If you boil the mix, the temperature change separates out the oil from some of the other components of the fish. Be aware the oxidation point of fish oil is 254 degrees F so there is no chance of free radical toxins being created this way.

This may act as a cleaning process but it also changes the chemical classification of the fish oil, at least in part, to something known as ethyl esters.

Critics have repeatedly and unsuccessfully tried to convince the consumer that the ethyl ester form is “chemically altered” implying that chemicals are used to change it into something unnatural. Strictly speaking it is no longer the same chemical as extracted from the fish directly (thus chemically altered but not with chemicals- merely by the purification process).

In point of fact over 80% of the fish oils on the market have been subjected to this process.  Some have even been subjected to repeated and more aggressive cleaning and concentration processes.  These are generally molecular distillation processes and can concentrate and clean the fish oil to the point where it contains 85% or more essential fatty acids and no measurable toxins.

The same cannot be said of natural triglyceride fish oils which usually approach only 25% purity and may contain whatever toxins exist in the oceans where the raw fish were caught.

The term Pharmaceutical Grade Fish Oil originated over a decade ago to distinguish the higher potency purer fish oils form their “natural counterparts”.  That term has no meaning any longer except for search term optimization on the Internet.  Manufacturers of fish oil are more or less forced to use it.

If you are buying a “Pharmaceutical Grade” fish oil look for purity and potency values that suggest it has indeed been concentrated to at least 50% and purified from toxins.

What about taking a natural triglyceride type of fish oil.  Such a fish oil may work fine for you if you feel you need to stay “natural”.  Just be aware you will need to take as much as 3X the amount of a purer fish oil to get the same levels in your body.  Also, be aware that you may be ingesting the very same toxins including lead, mercury, and arsenic as well as plastic derivatives that your body cannot get rid of easily or quickly.

You will at least get some Vitamin D and A and perhaps some anti-oxidants like astaxanthin depending on which fish was used as the base.  The more you distill fish oil the more concentrated the essential fats get, but the more of the other stuff including the vitamins you remove.  Most people who take fish oil on a regular basis also take a multi-vitamin so this is not likely to be an issue.

With fish oils that contain toxins, the problem is not in the use of small doses short term but in the use of larger doses long term.  Most of the toxicity of these metals and other toxins is not familiar to most Western doctors and can present as dementias after chronic exposure.  It is unlikely that most modern doctors will even think of mercury toxicity when the patient is over 80.  They will simply say you have Alzheimer’s and write you off!

More and more people are on larger doses of fish oil on a daily basis more or less for life, so chose wisely!

Critics of ethyl ester fish oil also state that it is not a “natural molecule”. An entire species of shrimp known in the North Atlantic as Calanus contains this type of molecule.  No one calls that shrimp unnatural!

The human body contains all the needed absorption and enzyme components to efficiently absorb ethyl esters and uses that very form as an end point or intermediate in the many things that are made in the human body from EPA and DHA.  You can find ethyl ester intermediates in just about every anti-inflammatory mediator that is made from membrane bound EPA and DHA.

There is another form of fish oil known as re-triglyceride fish oil.  This is where using an expensive and involved process a molecule that truly does not exist in nature is formed. This process allows for a few more % points in concentration but achieves nothing over molecular distillation.  The difference between 85% concentration and 92% concentration would be the difference between 6 capsules and 5.9 capsules per day.  Since you cannot divide capsules it becomes meaningless!

Still if you like hi tech innovations you might want to spend the money.

Most of the different formats have tried to make a USP out of short term absorption.  In order to show this difference, the use of special diets is needed and a measurement at no more than 12 hours time is needed.

If you give an ad lib diet (where people eat normally) and measure at 6 weeks the only things that matters is the total dose of essential fatty acids.  This creates an advantage for the highly concentrated ethyl ester types of ultra purified fish oils.

The other advantage is that there is at least 30X more studies done with this type of fish oil because it is very common on the market place.

As a researcher, if one wants to deliberately show that fish oil is no good for something one would pick an unpurified cod or triglyceride form of fish oil as the test.  One would avoid a concentrated purified ethyl ester or a re-triglycerided form because of the much higher essential fatty acid content per dose.

Now what about krill?

Krill has been around for almost 20 years and finally found market niche, or a USP because it is “different”.  The marketing hook is that it is a “superior molecule” because it is already packaged in the format that the human cell “likes and uses” known as phospholipid.  There are also some studies that suggest that it is better absorbed.

There are also some that suggest it is not superior in absorption and there is no study that has a clinically relevant end point that shows that krill is superior to any fish oil form. Unless the study has been sponsored by a krill manufacturer!

The largest study on fish oil ever done was entitled GISSI. It was done in Italy to show the benefits of fish oil on people who already had a heart attack.  Not only did it reduce sudden death, cardiac death, and several other forms- it reduced total all cause mortality (deaths from any cause) by nearly 1/3!

The oil used was a highly purified ethyl ester that eventually became the first “fish oil drug” on the market.

Almost all of the non-sponsored studies that are designed honestly to show benefits are done with ethyl ester fish oil. That said, there is no reason any of the other forms will not work.  They simply have not been tested as extensively.

Krill (vs fish oil) now has approximately 13% of the marine lipid market for human health. In the process of riding the wave of success of fish oil there is now serious concern (far more concern than with over fishing which is regulated by the Marine Stewardship Council) of the effect of harvesting krill on the environment.  There is currently no regulatory body that oversees the entire krill industry.

Another statement made by krill manufactures is that because it’s a tiny little organism it does not accumulate nearly the toxins that larger fish might.  This is absolutely true and worth considering if you ignore the fact that these tiny little brine shrimp (my kissing Gorami’s love them!) need to be used in huge numbers to make one capsule and one bottle of krill.  Something small multiplied many times yields something much larger.

I would like to see the krill manufacturers publish their toxin data.  I have not seen one do it so I did it myself.  Using a major well-known internet doctor’s krill brand, I found 50X the level or inorganic arsenic as allowed in drinking water. I suspect this individual has never done 3rd party independent testing on his product. It also calls into suspicion the supplier as there are only a few major krill suppliers out there. More fish oil vs krill oil “marketers” supply testing data, especially with the higher quality products on the market.

Again, the issue  of fish oil vs krill might not be serious if you take small amounts over short times.

There is also a well documented and tragic case of an explosion at Canada’s major krill supplier that killed 6 people.  This occurred because a solvent that has been linked to cancer, called hexane exploded on the plant site. I am not sure about you, but I am not a fan of using carcinogenic solvents for the extraction of oils that people are going to consume!

Krill’s superiority (and their USP) stems from the “more bioavailable” nature of the phospholipid.  Human cells store EPA and DHA like this.  But as mentioned above they also use ethyl esters derived from these phospholipids for almost all forms of non-membrane uses of essential fatty acids.

Finally let’s assume that krill is 2X more absorbable than fish oil.  The average krill dose per capsule is 350 mg.  Some are far less.  A highly concentrated ethyl ester fish oil (or chemically altered fish oil if you believe the marketers) contains a gram of essential fatty acids.  This means that krill still falls behind in the all critical dosage war.

So, what have we learned when it comes to the “other” fish oil vs krill?

We have learned that ALL types of marine lipids that contain EPA and DHA work, no matter if it’s fish oil vs krill oil.  If you get the doses adjusted and ignore potential toxins they should all work the same.  They just have not all been tested to the same extent, especially in live people!

We have also learned that there are advantages and disadvantages to all forms of essential marine lipids. And they are ultimately more the same than different except for purity and potency.

They type you chose will be entirely up to you.  You will most likely make that decision not based on science but on marketing. The ultimate decision will be made based on who and what you feel most comfortable with, probably not what makes the most scientific sense.

The good news is that marine lipids are really good for you, and you will most likely benefit from using them no matter which one you ultimately pick.

But, as they say, the devil is in the details!

 

David Woynarowski MD

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Acting Your Age Might Actually Have Some Merit!

Over the years I’ve told you to be, act, and think younger than you are.

While there is ongoing debate about the power of the mind to influence the body, more and more evidence suggests that you do indeed have some say in how you look and feel and of course, how you experience life (also known as how you behave!).

But today’s message is just a little different take on things. About 11 months ago a wrote a blog that revealed to you things I might have done differently. One of the things I mentioned was I would warm up more before exercise and I would stretch afterwards. The temptation to jump right in and put a check mark in the “done box” of exercise always made it difficult for me to get ready.

Even the concept of getting ready to exercise was kind of humorous a few decades ago. I mean, did you come to exercise or did you come to be the guy stretching and doing those silly calisthenics for 2 minutes!

Well, I can tell you now the 2 minutes has expanded into more like 20 or 30 and has become the main focus on a daily basis.

Along those lines I can tell you one of the main ironies of aging but it may be better if I tell you a story.

Not all that long ago a somewhat younger doctor colleague of mine who used to be a resident under me told me the tale of his father’s heart attack and subsequent bypass. His dad, also a doctor always “exercised” which consisted of playing tennis 3x a week and swimming once or twice a week.

In his mind that was enough.

My friend told me the tale with a mixture of confusion and knowing. He shook his head in a “no” movement with wide eyes when he said, “He thought the exercise would save him but it didn’t”. Again I cannot stress enough the mixture of confusion and lost puppy-ness on his face.

My response was probably not comforting.

I simply said, “You cannot exercise away a bad diet”. I might have added, “Not with some social tennis and lazy laps in the pool!” But at least I had the good sense to leave that out.

Another conversation about 2 friends well into their 50’s: “How are Joe and Johnny doing?”
“Oh, fine both of them tell me they are really working out hard these days.”
“Gee that’s funny, every time I see them they look exactly the same!”

And in those conversations my friends is the kernel of today’s message.

Exercise as therapy needs to be fairly aggressive within the limits of what is healthy for you. The current recommendation for “anti-aging” benefits is 40 minutes 5 days a week.

Going back to my doctor friend and his doctor dad, I saw the lifestyle close up. Eating out more nights than eating at home. A glass of wine or 2 every night (I can hear you saying, “But I thought that is healthy!”* Ad libitum eating under the guise of “Oh well I worked out today”.

Sorry, that will not help you age better. As a matter of fact, the great irony of aging is truly “Youth is Wasted on the Young!” In simple terms that means most people start to coast in their 50’s and onward.
They eat worse they drink more and they exercise less and with less vigor. Many have more financial means than ever and somehow being financially secure leads to a behavior of being secure in your health.

The inconvenient truth is you should spend more time exercising stretching and working out than ever as you age, again within the limits of your joints and health. Most people could do far more than they do safely**. Coasting may be a natural tendency but it is in fact deadly!

And exercise is not an excuse to eat poorly.

If you are one who works out don’t forget your multi and don’t forget to be on the higher end of fish oil consumption so you can reduce post workout soreness and help your muscle intake of nutrients and insulin response. All that will make your work outs more healthful and effective.

No one said successful aging was easy. But it sure can be fun especially when someone 20 years younger is panting to keep up!

Treat your body to the best so you can be your best.

Yours in having fun and staying young!
Dr. Dave

 

 

*As we dive into “personal omics” the so called use of genes to look at “personalized medicine” it becomes more apparent that some of the “healthy” habits are not healthy for everyone. 2 glasses of wine a day, supported buy the so-called French Paradox ignores the rest of the French life style and epigenetics of that population and lays all the benefit to red wine. I have ALWAYS doubted that although I am sure red wine sales have gone up over the past 20 years. You can do just as well taking red wine extract and avoiding the alcohol. Similarly some people can smoke a few cigarettes a day or an occasional cigar and have no issues. Some cannot. Aging well does have a wee bit of denial associated with it but let’s not get dramatic. You do not need wine every night, cigars and cognac every weekend and a fancy gourmet meal 5 days a week to enjoy life. If all this sounds foreign to you I can assure you there are plenty of people between 55 and 75 who do this all the time!

** Always consult your doctor when it comes to your exercise program.

Valentine’s Day in National Heart Month

First off, I want to wish you the happiest of Valentine’s Days! I hope you are able to spend it with everyone who loves you and you love.

You may or may not know that February is National Heart Health Month.

As such I thought it would be a good time to remind you of the heart healthy benefits of Omega 3 fish oil.

It’s easy to lose track of the role of fish oil in your health because of all the push and pull in scientific publication. In case you haven’t noticed there is a war going on. The Big Pharma driven industry is trying desperately to control the public’s enthusiasm and consumption of fish oil as well as many other supplements.

There is an unending “good- no good” battle in the media. The funniest one most recently was “Once and for all Fish Oil is no good for your Heart!” What they were trying to say was that in a huge meta analysis there was only a 7% improvement in overall cardiac outcomes and this was not statistically significant. A day later a study was released that said exactly the opposite!

Of course, I have written to you for years about how worthless meta analysis really are because the end result is predicated on what data you put in, pick all negative studies and you get negative result. Most of the Big Pharma sponsored journals are the ones that doctors read. I come from that world and I can tell you true. Most doctors know nothing about the true biochemistry of Omega3’s and Omega 6’s. Like you, they read only headlines and maybe a part of the abstract and have already drawn their conclusion.

They are simply too busy to dig deeper.

This sets up the perfect storm to create a legion of true believers that spread the word for Big Pharma.

The problem is the battle is being lost and will continue to be lost until they do something out right nasty to our little supplement industry and clamp down in a fashion that everyone will recognize is an invasion of all of our rights.

So, far they have been smart enough to avoid that but don’t put it past them. They have all the money after all, and they mean to keep it.

In spite of that, fish oil sales continue to increase logarithmically and I would venture to say more and more doctors are using and telling their patients to use it.

They just don’t admit it in public LOL!

If you educate yourself and look at the question of fish oil and heart health as a whole I think you can draw your own conclusions. And I know what they will be.

In the meantime to quote the old 60’s mantra, “Make love not war!”

Think of your loved ones when you order your fish oil.

Happy Valentine’s Day,

Dr. Dave

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Dr. Fish Oil AKA Dr. Dave Woynarowski

Dr. Fish Oil AKA Dr. Dave Woynarowski

Dr. Dave Woynarowski, born in the 1950s in central Pennsylvania, wrote this about becoming “Dr. Fish Oil”

I have been a proponent of fish oil for so long that for better or worse I’ve come to be known worldwide as “Dr. Fish Oil”.  It’s a title I now wear proudly as on of the very first Doc to take and endorse a fish oil regiment.

Starting in 1976, Dr. Fish Oil had first hand experience with fish oil

Decades before most people had considered (or even heard of) taking a fish oil supplement it made it’s way into my house. I had just read the work of one Dr. Dyerborg who found that the Inuit had very little heart disease even though they ate a diet very high in fat, sparking my interest in the golden liquid that would become a big part of my life’s work.

Unbeknownst to me, this first glimpse into the fats found in fish oil would cause me to be known for most of my adult life as “Dr. Fish Oil”, a title I proudly wear to this day.

My journey as “Dr. Fish Oil” hasn’t always been smooth sailing

It took decades for the refining process to get even a remotely palatable product to market, and even then the purity wasn’t good enough for me. I labored for years, working with laboratories and manufacturers to improve the fish oil products that were out there.  Most of my colleagues at the time thought I was nuts, despite all the research that was coming to light about the health benefits of fish oil. It wasn’t until I had a very personal experience with fish oil that they started to come around, and it earned me the title of Dr. Fish Oil.

To this day I’m grateful that back in 1976 my dad (also a MD) introduced me to fish oil and sent me on my path to becoming an expert on the subject and Dr. Fish Oil. He passed away a number of years ago, but his work lives on through me. You might even say he was the original “Dr. Fish Oil”, albeit a much lesser known version.

Dr. Fish Oil goes worldwide

Dr. Fish Oil's Famous Pharmaceutical Grade Fish OilAlmost 2 decades ago now, I launched my first pharmaceutical grade fish oil product. Since then, it’s been tested and refined countless times to this very date (it was last updated just 8 months ago!). Now I can proudly say that I have created the most potent, pure fish oil on the market today. In keeping up with my Dr. Fish Oil title, I’ll continue to reach for the fish oil stars. While there isn’t much room left for improvement with a nearly pure product, I’m constantly on the lookout for new research involving fatty acids.

 

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An update on Dr. Fish Oils NEW Fish Oil!

My new and authentic fish oil will be available in 2 weeks.  We’ll start taking pre-orders in about 10 days.

Update: My pharmaceutical grade fish oil is available now! You can get it here.

A lot of you have emailed to ask if there is something the same or similar to my fish oils on the market.

Here is the bottom line. Nothing is “the same”.

Here is the reason:  In order for the products to be the same or even similar the very same chain of events, suppliers and encapsulators needs to be in place.

One of the things that matters the most is the final step, the encapsulation. This is because that is the step where all the proprietary stuff is added. This includes the flavoring and the anti-oxidants.  If one goes by the label you would think, “Well that stuff is on the label- how hard could it be to copy?!”  Very hard. The temptation is to go to the store and look at a label and look for something the same or similar.

Not only is this hard, in fact it’s impossible!  Because our encapsulator has proprietary stuff that unless you use them you are not going to get it.  Think of it this way.  If you own a Ford vehicle and you need a new fuel injector. You consult the engine diagram and you see “fuel injector”.  So you order a Chevy part for your Ford motor because, heck it’s a fuel injector right?!

Wrong!  This is the danger when people who don’t know supplements like I do try to make something similar. And I know for a fact no one is using my encapsulator for the specific formulas. It does pay to have friends in the business.

I once had a woman tell me to my face that dogs and cats cannot take fish oil.  This woman was the VP of sales for a major company that begins with N. She had absolutely no valid knowledge of the product she was selling and proudly displayed that in public.  Sadly, there is a lot of ignorance and just plain lying in this industry.

There are over 300 fish oils on the market.  They are not all the same even though at least some of them have similar ingredients.  Not a one of them is the same as mine. My fish oil will be here in 2 weeks.

It’s worth the wait especially if you have waited as long as some people have!

I sure do appreciate all the loyalty and patience you’ve shown.

And remember there is only one Dr Fish oil!  Everything else is NOT the same.

Doc

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The Ketogenic Diet Part 4 The results and Why I Stopped Taking my Precious Fish Oil!!

Here are the specific numbers I obtained on the various days after the 2 day induction I described in Part 3 of this series.

I will be starting the numbering series with #1 which was the first day AFTER the induction. In other words this is the first day of the 8 day routine I described in the last blog, 200 to 400 calories and 10ish grams of carbs as my usual daily intake.

Please note you will see references in my notes to dropping body weight. While this was a pleasant side effect of this diet and I suspected it would have to happen it was by no means the main goal. The main goal was to experience CRKD and see how I tolerated it.

Abbreviations. FBS= fasting blood sugar. Ketones = Ketones in millimoles  Wt= how much I weighed at a specific time. BW=Body water as measured on a Tanita Iron man Scale for hydration status. BF= Body Fat on the same scale*  MR is the metabolic rate at the time via the same scale (although once for correlation I used a Body Gem device).

I used an Abbott Precision Xtra to measure my sugars and blood ketones.  I did not look at urinary ketones primarily because if you are truly using ketones for fuel you should not see a lot of them in your urine. Your body should be gobbling them up for food and not peeing them out. Then again at $5 a strip for blood ketones, I can see why people opt for urine testing!

You will notice that occasionally I added some numbers after “eating” exercising etc. in addition to the fasting dry weight numbers first thing in the morning.

You will also notice I left the original “notes” from my diary in some cases so you can see what I was feeling and thinking at the time.

Baseline prior to starting the full blown calorie restriction/ketosis 8 day portion:

Body weight 200.8  FBS 96 (normal is considered 80 to 100)

Day 1 197.8    FBS 74 neg ketones

 

Day 2 195 .5  FBS 68 Ketones 0.3 I did an evening Interval session on the Airdyne cycle consisting of 8 rounds of 3 minutes at 85 to 92% of max heart rate with 2 minute rest intervals in between. I did not feel fatigued during this session.

 

Day 3 water only until 330 PM Fasting AM  Dry wt 193.4  FBS 77  ketones positive at 1.1 mmol

At 3 PM calf fasciculations and minor cramps with exertion plan is to intake protein before night time work out. Noticing some tiredness but could easily be from poor sleep (unrelated!)  NO serious hunger pangs at this point interested to see how exercise goes.  I think I can hang in with this for a few more days with no problem.  I am encouraged by the wt loss though it has to be water!

7:30 PM Glucose 45 min post soup is 66

End of the day tally  total soups 3  total carbs 9 grams +almond milk total calories 270 plus almond milk.

 

Day 4 Plan water and coffee only  Dry wt 192  not sure why I have a feeling this is the body wt plateau and that further losses will be less  I would like to get to 188 and see how I look!  Today BWater is 55.9  BFat 13% on athlete’s measure  Post water lemon and coffee sugar is 71  ketones 0.8. Going to try gym next and possibly running!

Got back from gym  a bit shaky and mild light headedness Ketones down to 0.6  glucose is 87  This is shocking to me unless this is the result of exercise  I find it hard to believe that anything I have put in my body today could be used as non ketotic fuel!  Not hungry though plan to run next will do a 90 cal soup,

From 7 PM to 11 PM Wound up having a total of 3 soups over 4 hours!  Wt 192  Once I ate one it seemed like my appetite came back although I did run 5 K and go to the gym and lifted weights.

Calorie wise I am golden and should be lighter tomorrow morning.  I will be excited to be 190 and am guessing it will take until Tuesday to get in that range solidly although I have dropped 1.5 pounds or more each day I am not sure why I believe the weight to be mainly water and expect it to plateau.  More tired than usual earlier than usual but caffeine intake is lowered as well.

 

Day 5  Wt this am is 189.9 and it shows . My body has sucked down and in spite of having the strength in the gym yesterday the muscle mass is clearly less in my upper body.

FBS 47  Ketones 2.2 both the most extreme I have had so far but I feel fine not hungry  Cut down on fish oil and coffee doses because they are so effective now. I think this is kinda fun but I am a bit concerned about muscle mass and energy  so far I can’t complain,  I keep waiting for the s to hit the fan and it doesn’t …appetite is only a problem when I eat!!!  Tonight’s outing will be interesting. I think I have finally hit ketosis and this is where the real weight and fat loss is going to happen.

Body Water was clearly the lowest in a while 54.8% fat 14+ % again highest ever in recent thanks to Body Water being low. Fasciculations and near cramp in rt Calve.  Need to stay hydrated coffee is diuretic.

Note: after spending the entire night with my calves doing St Vitus’ Dance I discovered that plain old salt in the form of Bragg’s aminos solves the problem of cramps, fasciculations and dehydration (duh! Water follows salt). Laughing because all of my medical training has been to vilify salt consumption and focus on magnesium and potassium replacement with absolutely NO RELIEF!!! All I needed all these years of was salt and water.  Blood Pressure is 110/62 Heart rate a bit elevated at 62 resting.

Day 6  ran out of glucose strips but ketones are a new high of 3.3 so I think my glucose must be on the lower side.  Had to do some snow blowing fairly hard work and now I am hungry  going for soup and cider amino water.    Fingers are getting a bit sore on left hand from repeated finger sticks!

Day 7 Wts were up to 192.2 well hydrated at 9.6% body fat and 59.9% body water no cramps or fasciculations again thanks to the cumulative increase in salt intake,

Ketones are at starvation level  4.1  the highest ever.  I am not hungry  I think I will go to low carb diet slowly introducing with juice for 2 days when I am actually done here.  Clearly I would have to be super dehydrated to hit 185 lbs and the lack of being able to stay up etc is beginning to create a pressure situation with my work. I will be happy if I can get back to 189.  Last night I had a total of 3 soups again and this must be what is causing the water retention along with a significant amount of salt I had with the soups and Braggs aminos.  So I will have to back off those a bit, I want to work out today as well as time permits!  Interesting experiment.

Day 7 nighttime  post gym and 4 mile treadmill run  about 2 hours post  glucose 67 ( water lemon and small amount of aminos) handful of nuts and a few marys gone crackers  wt 191  bw 60%  bf 9.6%  BP 114/66 hr 69 post bath.

Day 8  wt 189.4  BW 58.8%  BF  10%  RMR 2060 via body gem   FBS 62  ketones 6.1 which would now be considered starvation range.  BP 110/61 Pulse 72 resting.

Started to get woozy tired and hungry late in the day. But I  Held it together until 2 AM call, I think I would have been fine had I slept through the night but such is the life of a doctor. After the call I was starving and ate several bowls of cereal and “lo carb” bread. I justified this by saying to myself I had gone a full day longer than I set out to when I started this.  Still it was a total carb pig out and I paid the price in GI distress. You do not want to reintroduce food this way!!!

Final official entry Day 9 wt 192.4 Body Fat 9%  BW 60%  did not run numbers  will go back on less restricted higher but not high carb diet with more calories. You would think that as long as I stay below RMR levels I should slowly continue to lose weight the right way. There are however the endless water shifts to contend with!

OK now the comment about Fish Oil.  I can honestly say that I skipped doses to about every other day and reduced the dose to between 1 and 3 capsules on days I took it.  This is the first time in 14 years I have missed this much and taken this little.

Why? Well if you have read any of my stuff about the Omega6/3 ratios or better yet attended my teleseminar you know the answer or can give it an educated guess.

I will cover this and much more in the next and final blog!

Doc

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TTAGGG You’re It! Stress, Disease and Telomere Length

The repeating sequence of the Telomere-TTAGGG has proven to be a gold mine for determining biologic age ( how old your body is acting!) and disease prognosis ( how bad you are likely to get something) as well as the effects of stress.

A recent study on the effects of racism on the telomere length of black men was the latest to show how social stress can affect longevity.  I have concerns about how the study was done but I think it makes sense to say that this kind of stress is detrimental to anyone’s health no matter what race or color.

This study builds on previous studies done in orphans who grew up with universally shorter telomeres than non orphans,  and the effects of stress on caregivers responsible for sick children.  All of these situations lead to more rapid aging and faster decline.  You can bet being sick in general can shorten your telomeres and your life.

This was shown by another study involving men between 50 and 75 who were admitted with ACS, acute coronary syndrome. Basically they were on their way to having a heart attack and no doubt some of them did.  The ones with the shortest telomeres did worse.

This study echoes the now famous Farezeneh Far, Blackburn study that showed that Omega 3 (fish oil) levels were protective of telomeres in heart disease.

So it seems everyone is linking just about everything bad that can happen to you to short telomeres and everything good to long telomeres.

It would be a good time for me to mention that other diseases of aging like Cancer and Alzheimer Disease ( yes they dropped the ‘s!) are also linked to telomere length in terms of incidence and severity.

Now there is still a lot of disagreement among researching scientists as to whether telomere loss is actually all that important in aging.  This pretty much depends on what their pet project is and where their grant money comes from.

I have a simple ( my PhD colleagues would say simplistic!) way of explaining this. My friend Maria Blasco did a study recently that showed that turning on telomerase extends life span in adult and old adult mice.  That was the end point of the study.  There are many other people out there looking at things like intracellular junk (lipofuscin) mitochondrial function, calorie restriction, sirtuin proteins and mTOR inhibitors.  None of these strategies have been shown by themselves to lengthen life although some of them seem to improve health.

I am certain that ALL of these things were improved by telomerase activation or the mice would not have lived longer.  You can’t live longer with declining mitochondria, abnormal proteins and increasing intracellular junk.  It’s simply not possible.  But because these things were not specifically measured common sense takes a back seat to scientific skepticism.

Here’s the thing: They would rather remain skeptical than investigate these questions probably because their grand money does not include answering these questions.  It does involve protecting their source of income for their pet project however.

Here’s another thing: as I said above Telomerase Activation seems to be the only current feasible way to extend life in mammals.  The folks spending time on all that other stuff have been unable to demonstrate increased longevity AND healthspan.

Want it to be even more simple?

I will quote that bastion of American Health who brought us the great Dr Oz.

Yes, I am talking about Oprah who said “I want long telomeres!” She should be on TA-65!

You probably should too!

I am entering year 5 with nothing but positive improvements in both telomere length and % of short telomeres. Both are going the right way for decreasing biologic age.

What is youth worth to you?

Doc

PS what I have said here is especially important if YOU are under constant or severe stress, get sick a lot or have a family history of one of those nasty diseases above!

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Krill better than fish oil- more chicanery

A recent a study published in the journal Lipids in Health and Disease my favorite topic was examined. That topic you may have guessed is the ratio of Omega 6 inflammatory fats versus Omega 3 anti-inflammatory ratio. I have harped on and on about this for many years because it is the most important measure of how YOU are doing with your fish oil consumption. In my recent teleseminar I detailed the results of over 150 tests that I did. Like I have told you before I do my own research on stuff I think is important. I don’t just rely on internet nonsense or marketing hype which sadly is what most of it is.

Which brings me to the next point.

There is a battle going on for market share in Omega 3’s. This is not surprising considering their importance of Omega 3’s.
Here are the combatants.

Omega 3 fish oil manufacturers which include Ethyl ester “natural triglyceride” fish oil which is pretty much straight out of the fish, and finally the so called re-triglycerided “fish oil”  and a real anomaly since this molecule does not exist in nature at all.

Today I want to focus on krill and debunking some of the marketing nonsense and hype that goes on.

Please note this is only a short list of the most frequently used BS arguments on the internet. I am not against competition I am against deceptive tactics and as you will see there are plenty.

Here are they typical nonsense internet claims you will here and the truth

1) Krill is better than fish oil. The latest study shows an improved Omega 6/3 ratio with krill over fish oil. In the past Acker Biomarine the largest krill manufacturer on the planet funded a similar study. That study also showed an improved absorption on a mg per mg basis with no difference in clinical outcomes. Interestingly enough the folks at Acker were slick enough to pick a really crappy cod liver oil with only about 30% Omega 3 content. And they still could not say it was better. The most recent study Lipids Health Dis 12:178, 2013 was even more clever. Somewhere somehow they found a “fish oil” that was more omega 6 than omega 3. That was what they used for comparison, something that was guaranteed to show a positive result. Since this kind of fish oil had to be deliberately sought out and does not represent even typically available commercial fish oil I can only conclude this was deliberate chicanery meant to deceive people who do not know any better. How about this. I invite the authors to redo the study with my Ultra 85 I will donate as much as they need but they HAVE to publish the results. I will be waiting! I should also point out another thing. Last April there was a fatal explosion at the Neptune Krill plant in Canada. Hexane a volatile organic solvent that has been linked to cancer caused the explosion. Since Neptune makes only Krill I have to wonder what they use the Hexane for! I can only guess this is part of their extraction process. You decide whether this sounds like something you want to be exposed to!

2) The integration of krill into membranes is better than fish oil because it’s a phospholipid and mimics the membrane form more closely than any form of fish oil. This is actually true on a mg per mg basis. But they leave out the fact that commercial krill preparations only contain a total of around 300 mg of Omega 3 per capsule. They also leave out the fact that membrane bound Omega 3 still has to go to single chain EPA and DHA to be used for anything other than membrane activity. While membrane bound fatty acids are structurally important in ALL membranes including cell wall mitochondria and nuclear membranes. But anything else and believe me there is lots else (cytokines Resolvins Protectins all kinds of immune and hormonal modulators) all goes through single chain EPA and DHA forms. Ethyl esters are the closest format to that. Closer than 2 tailed phospholipids and much closer than the 3 tailed triglyceride forms.

3) Krill is pure because it’s small and comes from the pure Antarctic waters. What a load of BS that is. The krill I tested independently had lots of toxins and pollutants including 50X the amount of arsenic allowed in drinking water. Wanna guess which famous internet guru that everyone things so highly of is selling it? In addition the statement is true only if you look at single isolated organisms. Krill is tiny and it is at the bottom of the food chain. So its true it cannot accumulate much pollution. But when you concentrate hundreds of thousands or millions even to make one bottle then a little gets magnified and becomes a lot. Do you really think the people making these statements don’t know that?!

4) Fish is non sustainable therefore we should use krill. The Truth: Several krill fishing areas have been shut down because of eco system imbalances. Fish consumption is however stable now and for the foreseeable future due to appropriate fish and aquatic husbandry. In addition attempts to modify the food chain have led to such great things as Frankenfish the genetically modified salmon that grow huge and outcompete their wild type neighbors while providing more Omega 3 per pound. And my favorite GMO- plants modified to produce human form Omega 3’s, now looming on the horizon. Krill is certainly no more sustainable than fish and is more likely to affect more species because it is so low on the food chain.

5) Please show me one population based study on krill. I want that because the tiny little studies that are funded by Acker and Neptune completely lack the statistical power needed to draw any real conclusions and the conclusions they draw are “equivalence” not superiority in spite of the marketing hype. Truth: There is not one population of humans on the planet that lives on krill.

6) Ethyl ester fish oil is poorly absorbed. The truth is it is not “poorly” absorbed it is “slowly” absorbed so if you fiddle with your studies in the right way and check the absorption times at one hour you will see a difference. But the largest series of studies done with Ethyl Ester fish oil was called GISSI and have many times shown all the benefits these studies showed. They researchers there deliberately chose Ethyl Ester fish oil for it’s slower absorption curve for a reason. That reason is most people take their fish oil in the morning after they wake up. Most heart attacks statistically happen earlier in the morning. The slow steady 24 hour absorption curve of Ethyl ester fish oil covers the people better because it is still around at the time they need it most, 20 to 22 hours later! The results were unequivocal and included a 28% reduction in sudden death, 35% reduction in all cause mortality and similar reductions in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deaths.

7) Here is what a recent review of fish oil formats concluded: “While the results with fish and fish oils have been not as clear cut, the data generated with the purified ethyl ester forms of these two fatty acids are consistent.” Read that last word CONSISTENT. There are no other Omega 3 formats that can show the same volume of data. Not krill not “natural triglyceride” not retriglycerided NONE!

8) Here is more from that same article EPA and DHA as ethyl esters inhibit platelet aggregability, and reduce serum triglycerides, while leaving other serum lipids essentially unaltered. Glucose metabolism has been studied extensively, and no adverse effects were seen. Pro-atherogenic cytokines are reduced, as are markers of endothelial activation. Endothelial function is improved, vascular occlusion is reduced, and the course of coronary atherosclerosis is mitigated. Heart rate is reduced, and heart rate variability is increased by EPA and DHA. An antiarrhythmic effect can be demonstrated on the supraventricular and the ventricular level. More importantly, two large studies showed reductions in clinical endpoints like sudden cardiac death or major adverse cardiac events.

9) Ethyl Esters are not found naturally in humans or in nature. Truth: Ethyl Esters are naturally occurring intermediates in the Omega 3 chain. This is often how other forms (phospholipid and triglyceride) become the single chain mediators they need to to create the Omega 3 effects against inflammation. In addition they are they main form of Omega 3 found in Calanus finmarchicus a kind of shrimp that inhabits the Northern Atlantic. So there goes that argument as well.

There is a reason you will not see well designed honest head to head studies comparing the effects of something like Ultra 85 to any of these other formats. All you will see and hear are people you never heard of claiming to be experts hawking their products. I do that too don’t I. But I design and chose my products based on science testing and what I would want for myself and my family.
If you knew what I know this is the only stuff you would consider ultra 85 and regular PG fish oil

Doc

PS If you want to learn more go to my telecom here.

References:
Ramprasath et al.

(Lipids Health Dis 12:178, 2013
Author: Peter D NicholsSoressa M KitessaMahinda Abeywardena
Credits/Source: Lipids in Health and Disease 2014, 13:2 “(Lipids Health Dis 12:178, 2013)”These conclusions are not justified and misleading. Considerable care is needed in ensuring that such comparative trials do not use inappropriate ingredients”

Metabolic Effects of Krill Oil are Essentially Similar to Those of Fish Oil but at Lower Dose of EPA and DHA, in Healthy Volunteers
Stine M. Ulven, Bente Kirkhus, […], and Jan I. Pedersen study funded by Acker Biomarine Please note the words “Essentially Similar” and this was using the lowest level fish oil they could find! This stud also noted an unexplained rise in inflammatory Omega 6 fatty acids with krill supplementation!
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2006;2(3):251-62.
A review of omega-3 ethyl esters for cardiovascular prevention and treatment of increased blood triglyceridelevels.
von Schacky C.

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2013 The Year in Review

First let me wish the Happiest of New Years and a phenomenal 2014. I can tell you that if 2013 is any indication, 2014 will be spectacular.

And speaking of 2013 I want to give you a brief perspective on this passing year from Dr Dave’s Best point of view both in terms of accomplishments and some personal stuff as well.

As always I like to start with a broad associative allegory about something I have learned and something I have sought.

Several hundred years ago there was a brilliant French essayist named Montaigne. He wrote about many things in such a succinct fashion that I have often sought his counsel through his work during my adult life time.

One characteristic he wrote about struck a chord with me in recent years: Equanimity. I made it a point in my New Year’s resolutions to seek it out and I can tell you that after 2 years of “asking” I think I found it in recent months and will only build on it.

My version of Equanimity is being balanced and centered in the knowledge of who I am and what I am to do here on this earth. Because of it the ups and down, the ebbs and flows and the fractal nature of life and time are more easy to walk through on an even plane.

Sound complicated? Just think balanced no matter what comes your way and you’ll have it. Trust me it’s a good place to be.

It is also the thing that allows me to tell you with 100% certainty that you are going to enjoy this next year with me if you chose to do so because massive break throughs are coming.

But let’s not forget 2013, so here we go.

In the earliest part of the year and leading in from December 2012 we introduced RG Stem Cell Activating Serum.  At the same time we also introduced the newly revised and redesigned Telomere Edge Packs. Each represented a never before created achievement and brought the promise of telomere preservation and stem cell activation within the reach of everyone on the list.

In March I reintroduced a product I had been sitting on for over 2 years, Ultra 85 fish oil. The ‘world debut’ of the product happened 7 weeks later at David Wolfe’s Longevity Now Conference. The great ironies of this were two: first this is where the product was originally introduced 2 years prior but because of the production costs we could not yet sustain its manufacture, next UPS lost our entire shipment.  You might have guessed that we were able to figure out how to make the product affordable both to us and the public. You might not have guessed that even in its absence, we sold out of the entire batch that would have arrived and filled those orders from our warehouse stock a few days later.

Immediately upon my return I introduced our contest which you can still participate in.  I can recall having an epiphany when I asked, “How do I get people excited about this contest and wanting to participate?”  You see back in the day when I first started rewards and free stuff was all the enticement one needed. Now 13 years later people are jaded and over marketed on the internet and I bet if I promised a million dollar reward no one would even read it! So I decided to tell everyone who joins the contest the main reason I wake up every morning.  To do research on products that will improve your life.

That seemed to be enough to get people moving because they understood they would directly benefit from the effort.

Two months later I was in Canada coaching my sister on her first Canadian Death Race and by the end of the month I was in the company of one Laurel Sander OMD getting healed big time at a full-fledged cleansing retreat. You can see some pics from my most recent trip there a few weeks ago. Suffice it to say the healing took and after 3 years of lower than desired physical activity I am back to my old self again. Now understand this is the culmination of a lot of things I do.  If you have followed me for any length of time you know I ask a lot of my mind and body and I am happy to say it’s delivering again.

During this time I also had my telomeres measured several times in both peripheral white blood cells and in my stem cells.  The later results are part of one of the studies I am currently doing so I cannot divulge that info but my peripheral cells gained over 600 base pairs using 2 separate assays and my immune profile has improved dramatically as well- all from taking TA-65 and the Telomere Edge Packs.  Depending on what you want to use as a starting point I have reversed the aging process in this most important cellular compartment by anywhere from 6 to 10 years.  The remarkable thing is I see it and feel it in my mind, my body and my performance. I am getting YOUNGER!!!

Now the skeptics among the world have said, “OK big shot you talk a good game now let’s see the numbers!  Why won’t you show us the numbers?”  So in a rare bow to peer pressure I have decided that I will reveal all the numbers on their official report sheets so all the naysayers can shut up ( hint that will never happen no matter what proof I offer LOL). But I do ask one favor in return after I do this.  People seem to love to call me on my credentials which are in fact a matter of public record if certain skeptics would get off their lazy asses and do a minimal amount of research. Again it’s much easier and more authoritative to simply fire it off as a command and hope I jump when you say how high than it is to type in “google”. But I will do the work just this once but in return I ask the following: There are a lot of big named people out there that you trust just based on their web popularity. So ASK THEM TO PUT THEIR MONEY WHERE THEIR MOUTH IS AND SHOW YOU THEIR TELOMERE LENGTHS.   I can tell you that more than one of them has done the test and been angry and shocked that their results sucked! Ask them and you’ll get a bunch of BS excuses about how the test is not accurate. The test is deadly accurate but the way they live their lives and their own information is faulty in terms of your health and longevity.

There I said it. Now you figure out who I am talking about and demand the same accountability from them. And while you are busy waiting for what will never come I will remain totally transparent because your life and your decisions depend on it.

That brings us to the late summer early fall when the next RG products arrived from the lab: The Booster, The Cleanser and the Blemish Cream. If you have not seen the videos on these products they can be found here on YouTube.

Also available there is the complete teleseminar on omega 3’s. If you have ever been confused about everything you hear about fish oil this is a great way to get the real truth. The difference between this and the marketing hype is I show you the actual biochem texts, articles and the results of over 150 Omega 6/3 ratio tests I have done.  I have honestly never seen anyone else try to back up what they say this way. Pretty sure the reason is they can’t but you be the judge!

And while you are on YouTube you can see me getting my telomeres tested on several different occasions, testing Omega 6/3 ratios and reviewing the honest data on krill, triglyceride fish oil and generally debunking myths left and right!

From September through December the work you did during the contest paid off. I was able to do additional research on telomere length and stem cells which has never been done. It will be at least another 6 months before the results are in but I will be once again in Mexico treating myself in a few weeks. By being the guinea pig here I am doing the kind of research you should be demanding of any internet doc who claims he is pioneering and cutting edge.

The same stem cell team I employ for the research just gave me the preliminary findings on RG cell serum and booster and showed that we are increasing youthful collagen production in skin fibroblasts. I will have the final report out to you in January 2014.

I will also continue to test these products for stem cell activation.

Speaking of products I have at least 2 new ones slated for release in the next 60 days so stay tuned!

Now a little personal info.  I have continued to meet speak with and learn from the best and brightest on the planet and that continues to be reflected in my newsletters and blogs.

And that is a lucky thing for you and me!

Happy New Year!!!!

Doc

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Are You Immune to Aging

Telomeres are the end segments of every chromosome that function as a biologic time clock. Their overall length and health determines how long your cells will live.

Over the past few years it has become more and more common to measure telomere length in blood cells, specifically white blood cells that represent your immune system. Lately with the advent of the HT Q FISH technology from Life Length this type of measurement has become accurate enough for doctors and individuals who are simply interested in their health to use for monitoring purposes.

But in all this there was very fortunate accident. The cells chosen in blood were picked for 3 main reasons.

1)      They were easy to get.  A simple blood draw and you have everything you need without having to biopsy some major tissue.

2)      Unlike Red Blood Cells, the white blood cells have a nucleus and that means they have DNA. That also means they have telomeres at the end of the segments of DNA in those white blood cells that can be measured.

3)      White blood cells are turned over rapidly and are constantly being produced. To help with this process they have an enzyme that is active pretty much only in rapidly dividing cells. This enzyme is called telomerase.  Telomerase turns out to also be a major key to longevity and health span as well.

So the bottom line is the measurement of Your telomeres in the blood shows the status of your immune health in many ways. Positive changes in immune health have been associated in 3 different types of studies using the telomerase activator TA-65.

Specifically human cell culture studies, animal studies and human studies have shown a positive response in the form of strengthening the immune system.  Independent questionnaires I have done and others have done have shown this as well: immune strengthening means far less coughs and colds!

A study recently released from the University of Utah showed this correlation as well. Longer telomeres= stronger immune system= less sickness!

So now we have a couple of interesting points by way of review.

1)      You can measure your telomere length in an effective accurate way using Life Length HT-QFISH technology.

2)      You can equate this telomere length to a bunch of different things including how long you might actually be able to live* and especially how strong your immune system is**.

3)      You can potentially strengthen your immune system with TA-65.

By now you might be wondering OK but what is really the big deal about the immune system other than coughs and colds?

The answer lies in the predictive value of your immune system health in terms of your overall health and quite possibly your longevity.

Let’s take the average American. One thing we can say for sure is that the average citizen of this country is way too low in Omega 3 fats and thus is walking around in an inflamed state. We can also equate this inflammation to America’s number one killer- heart disease, and a whole host of other “age related” diseases.  I put that in quotes because some of you may know I think that aging IS THE DISEASE and telomere lengths is kinda like the cholesterol test of aging.

The average American being inflamed has an immune system problem. His or her own body is targeting itself. The immune system is slowly damaging areas where it should not and less able to work where it is needed. That is not a healthy Immune System.  Now that does indeed show up in telomere length tests when you look at people with heart disease. Perhaps even more ironic is the significant effect of TA-65 on cholesterol. ***

What is the next hit our immune systems take? Answer: chronic and acute viral infections.  You may not have or even know what things like EBV, CMV or HIV are, but as chronic viruses that overwork the immune system or in some cases poison it they represent a major risk to health.

But to a lesser degree so do things like the flu and other seasonal viruses. If you are an adult your immune system should be able to fight off even new strains of flu and not make you sick. Instead we have to rely on flu shots and other methods of defense.  When we get the flu we are often sick for a lot longer than the infection should last. That represents your immune system trying to recover from the insult. If it’s weak you can very well wind up with bacterial pneumonia or some other infection following the flu.  One in three people who are reading this blog know exactly what I am talking about because they have been sick for months following a flu infection.

OK that is infectious illness, age related disease, and aging overall.

Then there is the special case of cancer which strikes through “immune holes”.  The Immune Surveillance theory of cancer is widely accepted now. It says that if your body has a healthy immune system cancer will not take root. It is only when there is a hole that it can get past that it can grow. Recently a drug for prostate cancer was approved that “programs your immune system to fight the cancer”. If this is not an acknowledgement of the Immune Surveillance Theory I don’t know what is!

So what should we really take from telomere measurements? Ideally we should understand they reflect the health of our Immune System and even if it’s just lucky that we can easily get these cells, it is a very important thing to know based on everything I just told you.

Simply put in many cases the Immune System is a primary driver in how well you age and how long you live.

Skeptical?  Watch the mortality rates from cancer and infection climb over the next 2 decades and then tell me what you think!

How can you protect your immune system and help it do its job?

Answer: Take care of Your Telomeres!

Dr Dave

Note: TA-65 is not a drug it’s a supplement. It is not FDA approved for anything and these statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and probably never will be unless Big Pharma comes out with a Telomerase Activating Drug. That will not happen until the pioneers in the field do all the work for them first.

*and ** These statements are best supported by serial telomere measurements. You need more than one measurement at more than one point in time because what you are really looking for is the CHANGE in the length of your telomeres, not the absolute length. In addition the HT-QFISH technology is the only one that gives % short telomeres, another critical factor in see where YOU really stand.

*** This study is available on Pub Med released Oct 2013